Table 3

Cost and energy density of state of the art TES systems.

System Storage method Capital cost (US$/kWht) Volumetric energy density (kWht/m3) Relevant references
Two-tank molten salt (Hitec XL) Sensible 28.21 240.2 [8,50]
Two-tank liquid sodium Sensible 48.48 92.9 [8,51]
Thermocline quartz/sand Sensible 20.26 183.3 [8]
EPCMa chloride salt (alumina shell) Latent 19.74 340.6 [8,52,53]
Coil in tank carbonate salt (stainless tubing) Latent 21 529.0 [8,54]

Encapsulated phase change material.

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