Table 1

Comparative analysis of two scenarios.

  Scenario-1 [7] Scenario-2
Fuel usage status
 Fuel savings potential 14.30%* (only with PV) 23.50%* (SR includes 100% of PV)
14.90%* (incl. battery, SR of 100% of PV) 25.80%* (SR includes 25% of PV)
20%* (incl. battery, SR of 25% of PV)
System status
 Annual energy supply 2,406,784kWh 2,406,784kWh
 Total DG capacity 700kW 700kW
 PV rated capacity 289.17kW PV_A and PV_B: 100kW, PV_C: 174kW
 System PV penetration 23.66%** (or 49.24%***) 29.33%** (or 63.5%***)
 Inverter capacity 250kW (grid-tied) PV_A and PV_B: 70kW, PV_C: 140kW
16kW (bi-directional) 200kW (bi-directional for battery)
 Battery size 16–32kWh Li-ion 100kWh Li-ion
(4–8 nos. of strings, 4 nos. 1kWh battery/string) (25 nos. of strings, 4 nos. 1kWh battery/string)
Emission status
 Reduction of COx 218 t/year 14.30%* 359 t/year 23.56%*
Cost status
 COE (AUD$/kWh) 0.349 (without battery) 0.303 (with battery)
0.318–0.346 (with battery) 0.361 (reference)

Compared with the reference case.


PV annual energy penetration level.


PV peak power penetration level.

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