Table 5

Approaches for assessing the resilience of RES.

  • Measuring resilience by considering the type of the extreme event, the time durationof the disturbanceand its impact on performance indicators [70]

  • Formulation of resilience as the system's capability to maintain its reliability during

  • adverse events [71,72]

  • Use the System-of-systems framework that integrates three main models for weather,

  • components and the system [73]

  • Applying the risk management and investment perspective by using reliability

  • assessment frameworks for handling hazardous conditions [74]

  • Determination of the system's capacity to fulfil energy security through interactions and the interrelations of the important elements of the system [75,76]

  • Classification of disruptive climate-induced events into five categories of minor,

  • moderate, serious, major, and extreme impact, depending on the frequency and duration

  • of the event as well as the number of consumers being affected [77]

  • Proposing a methodology for energy security assessment (defined as minimum vulnerability of

  • keyl energy systems) under long-term energy scenarios [78]

  • Distinguish between three basic weather conditions: average, severe and extreme [79]

  • Consider multiple climate scenarios from local climate models, time periods for energy demands and generation, optimize the energy system and assess it by using indicators [80]

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