Table 4

Characteristics of resilient RES.

Characteristic Description
Robustness Describes the system's strength to withstand internal and external shocks without suffering from major impairment in major functions [64,65]
Stability Expresses the system's stable and uninterrupted operation [63]
Flexibility It is the ability to perform necessary functionsunder a wide variety of conditions [66]
Resourcefulness It relates to the resources disposal and preparedness of urban planners and decision makers to appropriately prepare for, respond, and recover from possible disruptions[65,67]
Redundancy Refers to the availability of components with similar function in the urban system to ensure that failure of one component would not cause the whole system to stall [64,65]
Diversity of energy A resilient city should be diverse in terms of energy supply, use patterns, infrastructure, knowledge, [65]
Independence A resilient system should have a certain degree of self-reliance that equips it with the ability to maintain a minimum acceptable level of functioning (without external support) when influenced by disturbance [4,68]
Interdependence It refers to having mechanisms in place that enable a system, as part of an integrated network, to receive support from other systems in the network [64]
Adaptability It refers to a system's capacity to learn from past disturbances and its flexibility to adapt to the changing conditions [64,65]
Self-organization It refers to the emergence of macro-scale patterns or properties resulting from smaller-scale rules [65]
Creativity It refers to the system's capacity to exploit the disturbance as an opportunity to advance to a higher level. This necessitates utilizing innovation in planning and management [69]
Efficiency It implies that the ratio of energy and resources supplied by an urban system to the energy delivered to it as input, is positive [64]

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