Table 4

PPCM thermal conductivity improvements.

Enhancement technique Composition Enhancement of thermal conductivity Ref.
NPs Paraffin/expanded perlite (49.5 and 47.5) loaded with 1 and 5% wt. of graphene nano-platelets Thermal conductivity of paraffin-expanded perlite-graphene nano-platelets (5%) enhanced by 1.66 and 2.5 times faster than paraffin/expanded perlite/graphene nano-platelets (1%) and paraffin alone, respectively. [112]
NPs Paraffin/ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA)/graphene nanocomposites (0.7, 1.5, 3.6 and 7.0% wt.) PCM with graphene of 0.7% had the highest thermal conductivity enhancement among all nanocomposites. [113]
NPs Paraffin/ multi-walled carbon nanotubes and activated carbon Paraffin/multi-walled carbon nanotube and paraffin/activated carbon composites' thermal conductivity are improved by 34.1% and 39.1%, respectively, compared with pure paraffin. [114]
NPs Paraffin/ graphene oxide and graphene nano-plates The thermal conductivity of PPCM based graphene oxide and graphene nano-platelets was enhanced by up to 360%. [115]
NPs Paraffin/AL2O3, ZrO2 and SiC nanoparticles with 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%. Adding 1% of nano-Al2O3, nano-ZnO2 and nano-SiC to paraffin wax enhanced its thermal conductivity by 3.3%, 1.8% and 4.2%, respectively. [116]
NPs Organic montmorillonite (OMMT)/paraffin/grafted multi-walled nanotube (MWNT) OMMT/paraffin/ MWNT composite's thermal conductivity is higher than that of the OMMT/paraffin and paraffin by 34% and 65%, respectively. [117]
NPs Paraffin/ Fe2O3 (1%, 2%, 3%, 4 % and 5% wt. concentrations) The paraffin/ Fe2O3 composite's thermal conductivity was improved over the paraffin alone by up to 30% at 3% Fe2O3 concentration. [118]
EG Paraffin/EG (15%) The thermal conductivity of paraffin/EG is higher by 6.5 times that of pure paraffin thermal conductivity. [119]
NPs + EG Paraffin (90.6%) + expanded graphite + carbon fibers (1%) The thermal conductivity of gypsum mortar increased by 36.0% with the addition of 1% carbon fibers. [120]
NPs + EG Paraffin/ Cu, Al, Ni, and Fe/EG The highest thermal conductivity obtained for paraffin/EG11%/Cu1.9% was nine times pure paraffin. [121]
Metallic foam Paraffin/graphite foam composite The paraffin/graphite foam composite's thermal conductivity in solid and liquid phases was higher by 980% and 1530% than pure paraffin wax. [105]
Metallic foam Paraffin /copper foam metal composite The thermal conductivity and heat storage time improved by 40%. [122]
Metallic foam Paraffin (62%)/TiO2 foam The thermal conductivity of paraffin composite was higher by about five times that of pure paraffin. [123]
Metallic foam Paraffin/copper and nickel foams The thermal conductivity of paraffin increased by 376% using copper foam against 205% for nickel foam. [124]
NPs + metallic foam Paraffin/ polystyrene-carbon nanotubes/PolyHIPE foam Thermal conductivity of the composite paraffin increased by 62% compared with pure paraffin [125]
Fins Paraffin (RT82)/ longitudinal and triangular copper fins The thermal conductivity of paraffin was improved using triangular fins by 18% compared with longitudinal fins. [126]
Fins Paraffin/ Pin fins (square section-area of 1, 2 and 3 mm thickness) The thermal conductivity and thermal performance of paraffin were enhanced by 4.3 at fins of 2 mm thickness. [127]
NPs + Fins Paraffin(n-Octadecane)/ horizontal radial copper fins/ Al2O3 (1%–5% concentration) The best thermal conductivity of paraffin was obtained at 3-fins and 5% NPs concentration, in which the melting time shortened by 28.3%. [128]
NPs + Fins Paraffin/ graphene nano-platelets (1%, 3% and 5% concentration)/ Fins (longitudinal, circular and wire-wound) The optimal thermal performance of PPCM was achieved with 1% graphene nanoplates and wire-wound fins. The melting time was reduced from 23.5 h to only 1.02 h compared with the PPCM without thermal enhancement. [129]

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