Thermal improvements of PPCM incorporated building envelope.
|Composition (PCM melting temperature, °C)||Incorporation method||Construction element||Main findings and remarks||Ref.|
|Paraffin (44)/ Concrete||Direct mixing||Foam concrete||•The thermal storage capacity of composite PPCM/concrete is enhanced over conventional concrete
•Composite PPCM/concrete with 45% PPCM content had the best stable structure considering the thermal performance and leakage issues.
|Paraffin (44)/expanded graphite/ Cement||Direct mixing||Building outer surfaces and sandwiched middle enclosures of walls||•Foamed cement blocks of 30% PPCM content have the best thermal energy storage performance and efficiently maintain the indoor temperature.|||
|Paraffin Wax (58.5)/ Conical concrete holes||Direct mixing||Walls||•The cooling load was reduced by 9%. Moreover, an energy-saving of 31% and a time lag of 184 min were obtained.|||
|RT28 (28)/ Concrete||Impregnation||Autoclave aerated concrete||•The thermal storage capacity of concrete improved with 40% PPCM impregnation
•Two-thirds of PPCM/concrete is appropriate to ensure the optimal thermal performance of PPCM and prevent leakage upon melting.
|Micronal 5038X (26) and Micronal 5040X (23)/ Cement mortar||Micro-encapsulation||Internal and external wall applications||•The comfort period increased by about 15% during the entire year by mixing 15 wt% of PPCM with cement mortar.|||
|Paraffin (27-29)/ Extruded polystyrene/ gypsum||Macro-encapsulation
(high-density polyethene spheres)
|Wallboard||•The internal wall surface temperature was reduced by 21.4% and 23.9% during summer and winter
•Annual average energy-saving of 23.1% was achieved.
|Paraffin wax (44) incorporated separately||Macro-encapsulation
(aluminium pipes, rectangular cross-section)
|Walls and ceiling||•Cooling load reduction up to 20.9% and a maximum electricity saving of 1.35 Dollars/Day m3 were obtained.|||
|RT27 (27.5) incorporated separately||Macro-encapsulation
(copper pipes, circular cross-section)
|Walls||•Energy-saving of 63.81W-hr/m2 and a time delay of 116min was achieved
•Maximum heat flux reduced by 22.45%
•A maximum energy saving of 32.67W-hr/m2 was obtained.
|RT-21 (21-22)/ Pre- fabricated concrete slab||Macro-encapsulated (circular aluminium tubes)||Ceiling||•Energy-saving of 25% and 40% achieved during severe and mild winter conditions.|||
|Paraffin (23-27) incorporated separately into the interior||Shape-stabilized||Walls||•An average annual energy-saving of 5% was obtained
•The peak temperature in summer was reduced by 4.1 °C.
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