Table 3

Thermal improvements of PPCM incorporated building envelope.

Composition (PCM melting temperature, °C) Incorporation method Construction element Main findings and remarks Ref.
Paraffin (44)/ Concrete Direct mixing Foam concrete •The thermal storage capacity of composite PPCM/concrete is enhanced over conventional concrete
•Composite PPCM/concrete with 45% PPCM content had the best stable structure considering the thermal performance and leakage issues.
Paraffin (44)/expanded graphite/ Cement Direct mixing Building outer surfaces and sandwiched middle enclosures of walls •Foamed cement blocks of 30% PPCM content have the best thermal energy storage performance and efficiently maintain the indoor temperature. [79]
Paraffin Wax (58.5)/ Conical concrete holes Direct mixing Walls •The cooling load was reduced by 9%. Moreover, an energy-saving of 31% and a time lag of 184 min were obtained. [80]
RT28 (28)/ Concrete Impregnation Autoclave aerated concrete •The thermal storage capacity of concrete improved with 40% PPCM impregnation
•Two-thirds of PPCM/concrete is appropriate to ensure the optimal thermal performance of PPCM and prevent leakage upon melting.
Micronal 5038X (26) and Micronal 5040X (23)/ Cement mortar Micro-encapsulation Internal and external wall applications •The comfort period increased by about 15% during the entire year by mixing 15 wt% of PPCM with cement mortar. [82]
Paraffin (27-29)/ Extruded polystyrene/ gypsum Macro-encapsulation
(high-density polyethene spheres)
Wallboard •The internal wall surface temperature was reduced by 21.4% and 23.9% during summer and winter
•Annual average energy-saving of 23.1% was achieved.
Paraffin wax (44) incorporated separately Macro-encapsulation
(aluminium pipes, rectangular cross-section)
Walls and ceiling •Cooling load reduction up to 20.9% and a maximum electricity saving of 1.35 Dollars/Day m3 were obtained. [84]
RT27 (27.5) incorporated separately Macro-encapsulation
(copper pipes, circular cross-section)
Walls •Energy-saving of 63.81W-hr/m2 and a time delay of 116min was achieved
•Maximum heat flux reduced by 22.45%
•A maximum energy saving of 32.67W-hr/m2 was obtained.
RT-21 (21-22)/ Pre- fabricated concrete slab Macro-encapsulated (circular aluminium tubes) Ceiling •Energy-saving of 25% and 40% achieved during severe and mild winter conditions. [86]
Paraffin (23-27) incorporated separately into the interior Shape-stabilized Walls •An average annual energy-saving of 5% was obtained
•The peak temperature in summer was reduced by 4.1 °C.

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