Table 1

Summary of the methodology used for the forecasting and clustering analysis.

Step ANN SVR and LS-SVR Clustering and forecast
1 Import and clean raw data from missing points and outliers
2 Choose a resolution and horizon Resolution: 60 min, horizon:24 h
3 Organize input matrix X and output vector Y
4 Normalize X and Y Organize Y as 24 hourly daily and re-arrange X accordingly
5 Randomly partition data into 10 folds Use daily variance and peak index values to be used for clustering
6 Allocate 9 folds for training and validation of the models Run K-means with optimum number of clusters
7 Tune the ANN ensemble parameters using the training set Tune the SVR and LS-SVR parameters using the training set Assign daily profiles to the relevant cluster
8 Choose optimum parameters according to the smallest 10 fold cross-validation error Repeat steps 4–8 of ANN,SVR and LS-SVR methods on the clusters
9 Test the models on the independent test set and store the results in the “Predictions” vector Store results separately for each cluster and also for the entire clustered data in Predictions_wCluster
10 Repeat the first 9 steps for each of the 10 folds. Calculate error metrics and compare the results obtained by Predictions_wCluster and Predictions
11 Calculate error metrics by using the “Predictions” vector and the corresponding real load values  

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