Open Access

Table 10

Barriers and factors hindering the hydropower development.

Barriers Description Source
Policy and regulations Common understanding of public and private sector actors to fit together and form an intact mechanism includes; Kabaka and Gwang'ombe [22]; Ahlborg and Hammar [61]; Rickerson, et al. [62]
– To formulate electrification plan to utilize the available resources
– To facilitate the transfer of knowledge and skills
– To make commercially viable for remote and rural electrification projects
– Confusion to identify the small hydropower definitions with policymakers against large hydropower
Financial viability – High investment risk with too slow the rate of return
– Number of potential investors are not managing to secure funding, i.e. many of the banks are not familiar with the hydropower business
Market characteristics – Not manage to pay the initial connection costs and monthly bills
– Long transmission and distribution distances because of sparse population as well low load centres
– A large proportion of electricity used for household (lighting, heating, cooking) and social welfare services (education, healthcare, water supply)
– Limited used in grain milling, preserving agricultural crops, irrigation, industrial production, entertainment and rarely ICT
Unreliable fuel supply and demand – Drastic seasonal changes in the flow of water resources Javadi et al. [63]; Kaunda et al. [64]; Adebayo et al. [20]
– Low population density area and poverty to the existing hydropower site
Construction of large dams and maintenance – Lacking plan, design and limited human capacity and low level of government to finance the projects
– Inability to accumulate enough amounts of water during the wet season
– Difficult to purchase fuel and replacement parts
– Inappropriately low electricity tariffs
Poverty and theft Customers are the billed-debt accumulation and refuse or delay to pay
Technology Technology is pushed without explicitly taking into consideration the market demand resulted in either: Mondal et al. [65]; Kaunda et al. [66]
– Projects are abandoned after the pilot period or
– Technologies remain in place but stop functioning
Knowledge and skills – Lack of awareness of renewable energy i.e. hydropower in public, industry, utility and financial institutions
– Limited empirical knowledge on costs and benefits of the range of technologies available
Involvement of relevant stakeholders – Lack of involvement of local entrepreneurs, end users and local investors
– Lack of well set up of local management, local manufacturing facilities, operation and maintenance
– Rural electrification sets up is not well linked to the municipal, districts, regional and government
– Lack of knowledge and acknowledgement in social, environmental and cumulative impacts toward the implementation of the projects

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.