Barriers and factors hindering the hydropower development.
|Policy and regulations||Common understanding of public and private sector actors to fit together and form an intact mechanism includes;||Kabaka and Gwang'ombe ; Ahlborg and Hammar ; Rickerson, et al. |
|– To formulate electrification plan to utilize the available resources|
|– To facilitate the transfer of knowledge and skills|
|– To make commercially viable for remote and rural electrification projects|
|– Confusion to identify the small hydropower definitions with policymakers against large hydropower|
|Financial viability||– High investment risk with too slow the rate of return|
|– Number of potential investors are not managing to secure funding, i.e. many of the banks are not familiar with the hydropower business|
|Market characteristics||– Not manage to pay the initial connection costs and monthly bills|
|– Long transmission and distribution distances because of sparse population as well low load centres|
|– A large proportion of electricity used for household (lighting, heating, cooking) and social welfare services (education, healthcare, water supply)|
|– Limited used in grain milling, preserving agricultural crops, irrigation, industrial production, entertainment and rarely ICT|
|Unreliable fuel supply and demand||– Drastic seasonal changes in the flow of water resources||Javadi et al. ; Kaunda et al. ; Adebayo et al. |
|– Low population density area and poverty to the existing hydropower site|
|Construction of large dams and maintenance||– Lacking plan, design and limited human capacity and low level of government to finance the projects|
|– Inability to accumulate enough amounts of water during the wet season|
|– Difficult to purchase fuel and replacement parts|
|– Inappropriately low electricity tariffs|
|Poverty and theft||Customers are the billed-debt accumulation and refuse or delay to pay|
|Technology||Technology is pushed without explicitly taking into consideration the market demand resulted in either:||Mondal et al. ; Kaunda et al. |
|– Projects are abandoned after the pilot period or|
|– Technologies remain in place but stop functioning|
|Knowledge and skills||– Lack of awareness of renewable energy i.e. hydropower in public, industry, utility and financial institutions|
|– Limited empirical knowledge on costs and benefits of the range of technologies available|
|Involvement of relevant stakeholders||– Lack of involvement of local entrepreneurs, end users and local investors|
|– Lack of well set up of local management, local manufacturing facilities, operation and maintenance|
|– Rural electrification sets up is not well linked to the municipal, districts, regional and government|
|– Lack of knowledge and acknowledgement in social, environmental and cumulative impacts toward the implementation of the projects|
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