Renew. Energy Environ. Sustain.
Volume 6, 2021
Achieving Zero Carbon Emission by 2030
|Number of page(s)||7|
|Published online||27 September 2021|
Hybridization of Heat Pump Systems With Natural Ventilation To Improve Energy Efficiency in Cooling Dominated Buildings
CERIS, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa, Portugal
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Received in final form: 7 September 2021
Accepted: 7 September 2021
Building foundation piles can be used as heat exchangers in ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems to provide highly efficient renewable heating and cooling (H&C). Unbalanced H&C loads lead to heat build-up in the ground, decreasing the system's overall performance. In this study, the introduction of natural ventilation (NV) has been examined to decrease cooling load imbalance in cooling-dominated buildings to improve system efficiency. Building energy simulations estimated the H&C loads for an office building in three Portuguese cities: Lisbon, Porto and Faro, yielding heating loads of 0.2–3.6 MWh/year and cooling loads of 260–450 MWh/year. Four renewable H&C technology scenarios were used to assess energy performance: (1) an air-source heat pump (ASHP) system; (2) a GSHP system utilizing energy piles; (3) hybrid ASHP-NV and (4) hybrid GSHP-NV. Over 50 years of operation, in Scenario (1) COP values of 2.45–2.55 (heating) and 3.62–4.15 (cooling) were obtained. In (2), COP values increased to 4.15–4.34 (heating) but fell to 3.36–3.79 (cooling), which increased annual final energy needs by 7–8%. Unbalanced cooling loads increased the ground temperature by 21–24 °C, which is unlikely to be acceptable. Compared to (1), introducing NV reduced cooling loads by 65–90% in Scenarios (3) and (4), with the final energy needs decreasing by 59–80% and 62–88%, respectively. A further benefit of the GSHP-NV hybrid is that the ground temperature increase was limited to 8‑12 °C. For cooling, the COP in (3) decreased compared to (1) (3.14–3.69), while in (4), COP improved to 3.45–6.10. This study concludes that hybrid GSHP-NV systems should be considered in some cooling-dominated scenarios.
© N.R. Martins and P.J. Bourne-Webb, Published by EDP Sciences, 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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