Renew. Energy Environ. Sustain.
Volume 2, 2017
Sustainable energy systems for the future
|Number of page(s)||6|
|Published online||08 September 2017|
Distribution transformer lifetime analysis in the presence of demand response and rooftop PV integration
School of Engineering and Information Technology, Murdoch University,
2 School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
* e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received in final form: 6 July 2017
Accepted: 27 July 2017
Many distribution transformers have already exceeded half of their expected service life of 35 years in the infrastructure of Western Power, the electric distribution company supplying southwest of Western Australia, Australia. Therefore, it is anticipated that a high investment on transformer replacement happens in the near future. However, high renewable integration and demand response (DR) are promising resources to defer the investment on infrastructure upgrade and extend the lifetime of transformers. This paper investigates the impact of rooftop photovoltaic (PV) integration and customer engagement through DR on the lifetime of transformers in electric distribution networks. To this aim, first, a time series modelling of load, DR and PV is utilised for each year over a planning period. This load model is applied to a typical distribution transformer for which the hot-spot temperature rise is modelled based on the relevant standard. Using this calculation platform, the loss of life and the actual age of distribution transformer are obtained. Then, various scenarios including different levels of PV penetration and DR contribution are examined, and their impacts on the age of transformer are reported. Finally, the equivalent loss of net present value of distribution transformer is formulated and discussed. This formulation gives major benefits to the distribution network planners for analysing the contribution of PV and DR on lifetime extension of the distribution transformer. In addition, the provided model can be utilised in optimal investment analysis to find the best time for the transformer replacement and the associated cost considering PV penetration and DR. The simulation results show that integration of PV and DR within a feeder can significantly extend the lifetime of transformers.
© B. Behi et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2017
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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