Open Access

Table 1

Comparison between fuel cells and batteries.

Property Battery Fuel Cell
Power flow Bidirectional Unidirectional
Transient response Fast (milliseconds to seconds) [13] Slow (Minutes) [13]
Energy density Low (∼200 W/kg) [14] High (∼35 000 W/kg) [14]
Investment cost Low (∼$ 151 per kWh) [15] High ($ 1000–1500 per kW) [16]
Relative maintenance cost Depends on the battery type (high for a lead-acid battery) Low

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