Open Access

Table 4

Mean greenhouse gas emissions (gCO2e/kWh).

Energies Value (gCO2e/kWh) Reference
Coal 960 Hayhoe, Kheshgi [37]
Oil (petroleum) 778 Hayhoe, Kheshgi [37]
Shale gas 614 This study
Offshore natural gas 548    Hertwich, Gibon [38]
Nuclear 66 Nugent and Sovacool [39]
PV Solar 50 Nugent and Sovacool [39]
Wind 34 Nugent and Sovacool [39]
Hydroelectricity 13 Nugent and Sovacool [39]

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