Sustainable energy systems for the future
Open Access

This article has an erratum: [erratum]

Table 1

List of normalised longwave radiant energy per unit area for each LE. Data are sorted according to winter “Total”.

LE Radiant energy per unit area HLE (J m−2)

  Winter Spring


  Pre-sun am pm Post-sun Total Pre-sun am pm Post-sun Total
Shade cloth (white) −256 −625 −783 −468 −2133 −268 −549 −510 −316 −1643
Sand (white depth ∼40 mm) −246 −692 −580 −358 −1876 −356 −191 29 −268 −786
Crushed rock (white) −243 −572 −469 −291 −1574 −310 −375 −174 −203 −1061
Limestone block (90 mm × 160 mm × 500 mm) −253 −418 −204 −209 −1085 −291 −290 −9 −143 −733
Tree (native, Jarrah) −17 −357 −499 −145 −1018 −48 −542 −568 −134 −1293
Shade cloth (cream) −261 −93 −181 −468 −1003 −199 965 682 −319 1129
Shrub (ficus, non-native) −72 −333 −431 −144 −980 −88 −504 −422 −125 −1140
Tree (non-native, Jacaranda) −19 −357 −336 −98 −809 −138 −649 −582 −132 −1501
Shrub (woolly bush, native) −63 −280 −314 −131 −788 −80 −427 −373 −110 −989
Grass −189 −80 −179 −330 −778 −123 276 325 −124 354
Pavers (sandstone 40 mm × 400 mm × 400 mm) −241 −369 29 −163 −744 −258 324 813 48 928
Decking (pine) −254 −18 26 −358 −605 −243 836 829 −185 1237
Concrete slab (×40 mm) −287 −275 198 −182 −546 −305 568 1079 44 1386
Concrete slab (×80 mm) −255 −311 162 −85 −489 −271 441 1016 120 1306
Soil (moist, depth ∼50 mm) −227 −27 222 −270 −301 −168 2525 2273 6 4635
Mulch (depth ∼50 mm) −248 86 183 −273 −253 −192 1390 1538 −53 2682
Sand (grey depth ∼40 mm) −265 134 352 −270 −49 −240 1634 1748 −18 3124
Pavers (red) −242 15 403 −198 −22 −250 544 883 −31 1146
River pebbles (black) −233 −51 421 −143 −7 −225 974 1175 −29 1895
Artificial grass −255 414 571 −389 342 −123 2129 1658 −139 3526
Asphalt −227 160 567 −89 411 −201 1751 2358 249 4157
Pavers (grey 40 mm × 400 mm × 400 mm) −247 174 880 −43 764 −220 1492 2072 240 3584
Shade cloth (black) −263 961 966 −400 1264 −106 2943 2388 −98 5127

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.