Table 1

Input parameters used for estimating the annual useful thermal energy delivered and corresponding LCUTE for SIPH system and LCUTE for conventional process heating system.

Parameter Symbol Unit Description Reference(s)
(A) LCUTE of conventional process heating system
  Capital cost C0 Rs. 7,000,000
  Useful life n Years 30 [11,12]
  Calorific value of furnace oil   MJ/kg 43.5  
  Efficiency of fuel utilization in the boiler % 0.75  
  Price of furnace oil (2016) Rs. 28 [13]
  Discount rate d % 12  
(B) Parameters for estimating and LCUTE of solar industrial process heating system
  Process heating requirement PHRh GJ 1.52
  Performance equation (parabolic trough collector) η = 0.71 – 0.3581 * (Tm−Ta)/I − 0.0019 * (Tm−Ta)2/I [14]    
  Solar collection area m2 942
  Cost of solar collector and other components Rs./m2 26,500 (including 18,000/m2 as solar collector cost) [5]
  Thermal energy storage cost Rs. 2,993,188
  Capital cost of SIPH system C0 Rs. 27,956,188
  Useful life n Years 25 [15]
  Annual operational cost ACO % O  
  Annual maintenance cost ACM % 1% of capital cost  
  Annual escalation in operation and maintenance cost £ % 1% per year  
  Annual duration in performance % 0.005
  Discount rate d % 12

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