Open Access

Table 1

Brief overview of the data used in for the model. Refer to [7] for a full description.

Variable, units Description Data source
Lagged spot price, EUR/MWh Market clearing price for the same hour of the last relevant delivery day European Energy Exchange:
Average lagged spot price, EUR/MWh Average market clearing price across all 24 h of the last relevant delivery day European Energy Exchange:
Spot price volatility, EUR/MWh Standard deviation of market clearing prices for the same hour on the last five relevant delivery days European Energy Exchange:
Coal price, EUR/12 000 t Latest available price (daily auctioned) of the front-month Amsterdam–Rotterdam–Antwerp (ARA) futures contract before the electricity price auction takes place Bloomberg, Ticker: GTHDAHD Index
Oil price, EUR/bbl Last price of the active ICE Brent Crude futures contract on the day before the electricity auction takes place Bloomberg, Ticker: COA Comdty
Price for EUA, EUR 0.01/EUA 1000 t CO2 Latest available price of the EEX Carbon Index (Carbix), daily auctioned at 10:30 am European Energy Exchange:
Expected wind and PV infeed, MWh Sum of expected infeed of wind electricity into the grid, published by German transmission system operators in the late afternoon following the electricity price auction Transmission system operators:,,,
Expected power plant availability, MWh Ex ante expected power plant availability for electricity production (voluntary publication) on the delivery day (daily granularity), published daily at 10:00 am. European Energy Exchange and transmission system operators:
Expected demand, MWh Demand forecast for the relevant hour on the delivery day as modeled in [X] Own data, German Weather Service:
Lagged demand, MWh Sum of total vertical system load and actual wind infeed for the same hour on the last relevant delivery day Transmission system operators:,,,

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